I am interested in how we can flexibly control our thoughts, feelings and actions and the cognitive and neural mechanisms that subserve this ability. Related cognitive processes include: holding appropriate responses online (working memory), overriding inappropriate thoughts and actions with adaptive thoughts and actions (response inhibition), and detecting conflict between inappropriate responses and adaptive responses (response conflict). I am also interested in examining conditions that may serve to bias conflict and control. One recent direction has been to investigate the neural circuitry under conditions where learning of motivational contingencies or rule-based contingencies occurs beneath awareness. Behavioral responses from cognitive tasks together with measures of brain activity from fMRI serve as the primary forms of measurement.